The origin of 'modern' policing based on the authority off the nation state is commonly traced back to developments in seventeenth and 18th century France, with modern police departments being established in most nations by the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Cases of police brutality appear to have been frequent then, with "the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks." Large-scale incidents of brutality were associated with labor strikes, such as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the Pullman Strike of 1894, the Lawrence textile strike of 1912, the Ludlow massacre of 1914, the Steel strike of 1919, and the Hanapepe massacre of 1924.

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The insignia for General of the Air Force was slightly modified in the 1950s for wear on the new blue Air Force dress uniform.

General of the Air Force, however, has never been worn by an officer of the modern Air Force on active duty.

Arnold was a General of the Army and retired before the Air Force was made a separate service, but he was awarded the General of the Air Force rank after his retirement and was photographed in an Air Force uniform wearing the insignia of that rank.

During the Cold War, with the rise of the Strategic Air Command, it was proposed that General of the Air Force be reestablished and granted to senior Air Force generals, such as the commander of NORAD.

Hap Arnold was a pioneer airman who was taught to fly by the Wright Brothers, and commander of Army Air Forces in victory over Germany and Japan in World War II: born Gladwyne, Pa., June 25, 1886, died Sonoma, Calif., Jan. "Hap" Arnold, as he was fondly known and called, dating from his early days at West Point, was in the class of 1907 at the U. Three years later, by act of Congress, he received permanent five-star rank as general of the Air Force, the first such commission ever granted.

From then on his life paralleled the growth of America's air power and he personally contributed to most of the major milestones of development during the long period until he retired in 1946.

Portions of the populations may perceive the police to be oppressors.

In addition, there is a perception that victims of police brutality often belonging to relatively powerless groups, such as minorities, the disabled, the young, and the poor.

When used in print or as the battle cry in a black power rally, police brutality can by implication cover a number of practices, from calling a citizen by his or her first name to a death by a policeman's bullet.